Enamel Colour Tests
Written by Mark Morris
These are the set of enamel colours that I got from Milton Bridge's British Enamels set. It was quite a lot of work but worth doing. I've got an order for some cloisonné work and need some compatible non-painting colours. The top three rows are the transparent enamels and the bottom two rows the opaque.
The transparent enamels have been sieved to remove the finer particles and then washed to make them as clear as possible. The strips are done on silver since this reflects the light back through the enamel from behind. I've put a square (or whatever shape I happen to have cut out!) of gold foil at the bottom of the strip to see the difference when the enamel is on gold. Some of the reds come out a bit yellow when on top of silver but are nice and warm on the gold.
The opaque strips have copper as the metal base.
I should do two more rows for the opalescent colours, which will be from the fine particle transparent enamel. When the enamel grains are very small (less than 75 microns) then the vitrified enamel traps tiny air bubbles. The result is a semi-transparent, milky colour, quite useful in some applications!
I suspect like many others, I always enjoy trying out new colours. I have recently been trying out some new additions to the list of colours produced by Milton Bridge including a number of yellows, transparent reds and a beautiful transparent purple.
The first I tried was T253 Forsythia. I found this worked best on fine silver with the temperature kept below 750C. It has great clarity and is a really pretty transparent yellow, slightly greener and deeper in tone than LJE214 Ochre. Used direct on sterling silver in a single layer T253 has a slightly greyer hue and two layers produce a greenish brown. It is a golden colour when fired directly onto copper, slightly greener in tone on copper over 263C10 Flux. The copper sample I fired at 795C. I hadn't used that particular flux before and am still uncertain about it as I didn't really have consistent results. I need another set of tests to learn how to achieve consistent clarity with it.
T255 Amber is also beautiful on fine silver, producing a slightly warmer tone. Again it works well directly on fine silver and over LJE200 Flux and is a great addition to the list. I fired this one at 800C without any adverse effect. I also used it on copper over LJE200 Flux and MB202 White. I had a bit of breakthrough of the white, which is probably a bit soft for a base for this kind of test.
016377 Dark Amber produces a brown when direct on sterling silver, a golden brown direct on fine silver but loses transparency. Over LJE200 Flux it has a deeper and more golden tone than T255. I still need have more tests to do over fluxes and on copper.
DB6475 Purple is a glorious rich purple. My first test was over LJE200 Flux and direct on fine silver and both are beautiful. I don't have anything like this shade of purple. It worked well over LJE200 Flux and MB202 white on copper, this slightly softer white breaking through slightly. I also tested it on copper over SJE1012 Flux and MB020064 Opal White and had issues with cracking so feel I need to do some more tests for compatibility with other colours.
261A27 Ruby was an exciting set of tests. Initially I tried it direct on sterling silver, firing at 780C and got a very dark, almost chestnut brown. My second sample I only fired to 770C and had a slightly brighter result. With one layer on sterling over 263C10 Flux and reducing the temperature to 760C I started to achieve a more reddish colour. Two layers direct on fine silver and fired at below 750C produced a much better red and has good transparency. It is a very nice red on copper over 263C10 Flux, this time fired at 780C.
T254 Raspberry is very slightly darker than 261A27 Ruby but also works well when used directly on fine silver and on art clay silver, achieving good transparency. Once again I had better results by keeping the temperature below 750C. The deeper shade is more apparent on copper over 263C10 Flux, again fired at 780C.
I also tried three opaque yellows but have so far only done one test of each on copper. These samples were sifted on and fired at 800C.
DB6647 is a warm yellow, perhaps with a faintly green undertone and I found it fired the most smoothly of the three, possibly being slightly softer firing than the others.
263H55 is a bright primary yellow, possibly slightly harder firing as my first sample isn't quite smooth.
DB6359 is slightly paler yellow and fired well at 800C.
It is quite difficult to describe the differences between these three and I am not sure my photographs will show the slight variations in hue. I have really enjoyed the process of trying these out and although my trials have not been extensive I can see that these colours will all be useful additions to the range. Look out for them, they should be available from Vitrum Signum in the near future.
SPRING 2014 CLASSES
Linda Connelly: Coulsdon Centre,
Malcolm Road, Coulsdon, Surrey CR5 2DB Tel: 020 8726 7777
CALAT Coulsdon Centre, Malcolm Road, Coulsdon, Surrey CR5 2DB Tel: 020 8726 7777 Monday 31st March 2014 10 am – 3.00 pm Cost £28.75
Jewellery Making and Silverwork
CALAT Coulsdon Centre, Malcolm Road, Coulsdon, Surrey CR5 2DB Tel: 020 8726 7777 Mondays 1.30pm – 3.30pm and Tuesdays 7.30pm – 9.30pm
I teach 1-2-1 and 2-2-1 workshops all the while in Hastings. Details on my website www.joyfunnell.co.uk
I will also be teaching at Creative Glass in Rochester on 22nd March http://www.creativeglassshop.co.uk/product/35146/22-march-enamelling-on-art-clay-silver-with-joy-funnell.html
and at Metal Clay Ltd in Corfe Castle on 29-30th March http://www.metalclay.co.uk/categories/Courses/
Book directly with the venue or with me at CG Crafts for a one-to-one or small class to suit.
THE OLD BANK STUDIOS Harwich Book online: http://www.oldbankstudios.co.uk
Sunday 2nd February 10 – 4pm - Enamelling on copper for Beginners (£65)
ABBERTON RESERVOIR VISITOR CENTRE, COLCHESTER, CO2 0EU. (01206 738172)
19th April – Enamelling on Copper (full day - £50)
29th March - Enamelling for Beginners and Improvers. 10.30 – 4pm
BEAUTIFUL THINGS, Unit 1, Ingrave Enterprise Park, Brentwood CM13 3QH. (01277 811136)
Sunday 16th March – Enamelling for Beginners 10 – 3.30pm (£65)
HYLANDS HOUSE, Chelmsford. CM2 8WQ. (01245 605507) – (Circa £50)
2nd March – Enamelling: Paint a Scene in glass – 10 to 3pm
HANNINGFIELD RESERVOIR VISITOR CENTRE, CM11 1WT (01268 711001) (£25 to £30)
16th Feb - Beginners Enamelling, 10 – 1pm
CG CRAFTS, Colchester, Essex CO2 9AW (07847 098849) www.curly-girly.co.uk
Enamelling for Beginners or Improvers - tailored to suit. £50 for 4 hours - weekday Tuesdays (dates discussed) or organise a date to suit.
Ongoing termly general enamelling classes:
Riverhouse Barn, Walton on Thames, Surrey KT12 2PF.
Tuesdays, 12pm - 2pm.
Pewterwork: An Introduction
Denman College, Oxfordshire OX13 6NW
Jan. 30 - Feb. 2
Students will make a Pewterwork 'Sampler' and a brooch or pendant.
(Students with previous enamelling experience may bring finished enamelled work to mount, if desired.)
and youtube video at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Fl7uXusl00
According to historical sources, this most beautiful variety of precious metalwork originated in the second century AD and lasted until the middle of the fifteenth century. It was spread throughout two countries, Byzantium and Georgia. Only later, in the eleventh century, did it spread from this area to KievanRus'.
After the fifteenth century the technology of making cloisonné enamel was lost and we no longer come across objects made using this technique.
A project led by Ermile Maghradze entitled ‘In the Footsteps of Lost Technologies: Cloisonné Enamel' was initiated by the Georgian National Museum with the financial support of UNESCO.
The technological processes described in these treatises were studied as part of this project, and all those tools were reconstructed that would have been needed by medieval workshops to make cloisonné enamel.
As this project progressed, archaeological material was studied in parallel with various other activities, thus lending greater plausibility to research work.
In this respect the discovery of a conical iron hood with apertures, together with its plate, on the territory of historical Colchis, specifically, during the archaeological digs on the site of the former town of Vani in 1966, represents an important scientific find.
After the reconstruction of the enamelling hood described in Theophilus's treatise and experiments carried out on it, it became possible to determine the function of this hood. Many experiments undertaken in this direction showed that the ‘Colchian hood' was a tool for goldsmith work, used by the ancient Colchians in the early classical period for soldering operations on precious metals.The crowning stage of the ‘In the Footsteps of Lost Technologies: Cloisonné Enamel' project is a copy of a cloisonné enamel medallion of Saint Simon the Apostle from the Khakhulitriptych icon of the All-Holy Mother of God, which was made by Ermile Maghradze, the project leader, using tools which had been prepared as part of this project.
Address: Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia, 3 Shota Rustaveli Avenue
In 2013 applications came in quickly and some workshops were fully booked very early in the process. This led to some members, who were away when the journal came out, being disappointed. To try and avoid this in 2014 (and help if there are postal delays) details of the workshops and conference cost will be available on the website from the same time as the journal should be received (Dec 28th).
I hope that the majority of applications will still be submitted by post accompanied by a cheque (or cheques). However, I will accept e-mail notification of workshop preferences and, if necessary, payment can be made by direct transfer (not paypal) to the Guild’s bank account after emailing me for the necessary details.
To try and keep allocation as fair as possible and avoid timing discrepancies, I will not ‘open‘ for applications until Tuesday 31st December and although workshop places will then be provisionally allocated, these will not be confirmed unless payment has been received and will not be held for more than 7 days. If by any chance a workshop is over-subscribed on the 31st then a ballot will be held.
The Guild has a Thermofax machine which makes riso screen stencils from photocopied or drawn designs. These screens are similar to silk screen stencils and allow even finely detailed designs, or written words, to be enamelled. They can be used over and over again.
Members may have screens made at any time at a cost of £3 per A4 sheet. Full details of how to prepare and send a design and how to use the finished screen can be downloaded as a pdf from the "Thermofax Notes" file in the Guild Documents Archive which will appear in the members menu after you log in.